I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think. – Socrates
Indirect instruction refers to a set of learner-centered methods to encourage student involvement in observing, investigating, drawing inferences from data, or forming hypotheses. A goal is to maximize students’ learning goals and encourage problem-solving and collaboration. Leaner-centered approaches emphasize each student’s interests, abilities, and learning styles, placing the teacher as a facilitator of learning for individuals rather than for the class as a whole.
Some learner-centered approaches are:
Inquiry – a methodology that relies upon the idea that individuals are able to learn by investigating scenarios and problems, and through social experiences.
Problem Solving – an ongoing activity in which learners take what they know to discover what they don’t know. It involves overcoming obstacles by generating hypo-theses, testing those predictions, and arriving at satisfactory solutions.
Concept Mapping – a technique for graphically organizing and representing information that includes core concepts, relationships between and among concepts and explanations of those relationships
Concept Attainment – verbal or graphical examples are presented and students figure out the common attributes say between predator and prey or impressionistic and representational art. This process enables to students to develop a set of attributes to clarify a concept.
Case Studies – the presentation of realistic and complex narratives often involving a dilemma, conflict, or problem that one or more of the characters in the case must negotiate.
Self-assessment -filling out self-evaluation forms, journaling, surveys, writing revisions, asking questions, and discussing to determine what students know and want to know. This practice helps learners clarify their own beliefs and misconceptions.